The Internet protocol suite, also known as the TCP/IP Model, is a collection of protocols that use by the Internet and other computer networks.


  • Introduction to TCP/IP
  • What is TCP/IP?
  • Protocol Architecture
  • TCP/IP Protocol
  • Modified 5-layer model
  • Subnetting
  • Advantages & Disadvantages of TCP/IP
  • Configuration of TCP/IP

Introduction to TCP, IP

  • TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
  • TCP delivers a Stream of Octets from one programme to another on the network in a Reliable and Ordered manner.
  • TCP provides Reliable and Ordered Delivery of a Stream of Octets from one programme to another on the network.
  • IP: Internet Protocol
    IP Relay Datagram across the network in Internet Protocol Suite.

What is TCP/IP?

  • TCP/IP: Internet Protocol Suite
  • Its a collection of protocols designed to allow computers to share files over a network.
  • TCP/IP suite was Developed by ARPANET
  • The most well known Network that Adopted TCP/IP is Internet.
  • Packet (also called Socket) Provide Access to TCP/IP to a user.

What is Protocol?

  • A Protocol is a kind of Rule Book for two Networking Devices containing rules and procedure to Exchange Information.
  • It Defines the Format of Data that is being Sent and Received.
  • Some protocols are Designed for Reliable and High-Performance Network communication by Compressing Data.
  • Applications like Web Browsers contains a list of software that supports Advance Protocols, necessary for Application to Function.


  • Establishes Connection before starting Sending any Data.
  • Ensures that the Packets Reaches the Server.
  • Supports File Transfer, Mail, Remote Logon, etc.
  • Non-Copyrighted.
  • Is Based on ISO Standard.
  • Order of Sending and Receiving Packets is Same throughout.
  • TCP Controls the Transport Layer and Guarantees Data Delivery.
  • UDP is a TCP Replacement that Does not Guarantee Delivery.
  • IP Controls the Routing and Addressing in Network Layer.

Protocol Architectures

OSI Reference Model

TCP/IP Protocols Suite

ATM Protocol Stack

TCP/IP Model protocol

  • The TCP/IP protocol suite was first Defined in 1974.
  • It is the Protocol Architecture of the Internet.

The TCP/IP suite has four layers:

  1. Application Layer
  2. Transport Layer
  3. Internet Layer
  4. Network Interface Layer

5 Layers of TCP/IP Model and OSI Model


Protocols Built on TCP/IP Model



TCP Internals

  • Guarantees Data Accuracy and Delivery.
  • Uses Ports Identical to UDP.
  • Breaks Data into Individual Packets

Operates on Two Principles:

  1. Flow control
  2. Congestion control

TCP Internals

  • ACKs Indicate last consecutive Packet Received
  • Packets are Sent Again if an ACK is not received after a Period of Time.
  • Session Destroy is determine by the average round trip time of previous packets (RTT)

TCP Internals allsafesecure

IP Internals

  • Current Version of IP in use is IPv4.
  • Each Node of Internet has a 32-bit IP Address.
  • All the bits have Different Classes

IP Addresses are split into two parts:

  1. Network – same for all hosts on the same network.
  2. Host – identifies a specific host within a network.

  • IP Routes Information across a network via Packet Switching.
  • Each packets Transmit as a Individual Packet.
  • Packets may take alternate routes and arrive in a different order than when they were sent.
  • Packets are Sent as Datagram so Delivery is not Ensure.
  • Each packet has an IP header that contains the data’s source and destination addresses.
  • Packets Routing is Based on the Network Specified in the destination address.


The Subnet Mask Identifies which part of an IP address is the Node portion and Network portion.

Advantages of TCP/IP Model

  • It provides Good Failure Recovery.
  • Existing services can be maintained while new networks are added.
  • It can deal with a high error rate.
  • Its Architecture is Ascendable.
  • TCP/IP Provides Routing Protocol Support.
  • It Enables Internetworking between Organizations.

Disadvantages of TCP/IP Model

  • It is Slower than IPX(Internet Protocol Exchange).
  • TCP/IP is Difficult to Setup and Manage.
  • The Overhead of TCP/IP is Higher than that of IPX.
  • Size of Routing Information transmitted and stored is Too Big.
  • It Cannot be Use for Broadcast and Multicast Connections.
  • It is Unable to Troubleshoot TCP issues.

Configuration of TCP/IP

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