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Different types of Network Topology in Networking

Before discussing Network topology, it’s important to know what is a network.  A Network is a collection of two or more computers connected to one another for communication, data sharing, resource sharing, and other purposes. This is about networks but what about Topologies? In a nutshell,  Topologies is the technique for creating a network.

Network Topology

Network topologies mean a way to design a network. In short, we can say  How cables connect to the workstation in a systematic manner known as Network Topology. Understanding Network topologies is important for optimizing performance and making the network simpler for troubleshooting any problem that may come.

Why do we need Topologies?

  1. To find a suitable network design.
  2. To get maximum performance
  3. Troubleshoot problems in a network
  4. for managing the cost and cabling of a network
  5. To fix the traffic issues with connection sharing
  6. To improve network performance and effectiveness
  7. due to its ease of installation and reconfiguration

Type of Network Topologies

  1. Point-to-Point:-Point-to-point or we can say (PTP) topology consists of two points connected together to form a network. Two devices (nodes A and B) have a single transmission path for data transfer/sharing between them and there is nothing that breaks up that path E.g in the above image Two Computer connect with each other via LAN-Cable(rj45)

Merits and Demerits of Point-to-Point Topology

  1. Bus Topology:-All the Points connect to one single cable called the Bus, with the help of these interface connectors. The signal transmitted from one source to the destination (for eg.) Source(ISP Internet Service Provider Cable) which travels through the bus cable and goes to all the nodes (A, B,…, F, E)

Merits and Demerits of Bus Topology

  1. Star Topology:-All the points connect to the central device, which can be a Hub, a Router, or a Switch. Data sent from the nodes (A, B, C, D, E, F) passes through the central device (Switch) which acts as a Central Point or mediator and manages the network before data reaches the destination.

Merits and Demerits of Star Topology

  1. Ring Topology:-in a Ring topology, all the nodes connect together in such a way that they form a closed loop. All nodes (A, B, C, D, E) are connect and communicate with two adjacent neighbors (for example, D communicates with C and E).and With the help of TOKEN Both sends and receives data.

Merits and Demerits of Ring Topology

  1. Mesh Topology:-There is an interconnection between every node. In addition to sending its own signals, each node relays data from other nodes.

Fully Mesh:- The nodes in Fully Mesh (A, B, C, D, E) connect directly with each other. The main advantage of mesh topology in network path failure for eg Path D to F can redirect to path D-E-F in case of failure of path D-F.

Partial-Mesh:- in this nodes (A, C, D, E,) are indirectly connected to other devices (For eg. B connect with A, C, D, and E directly or indirectly).

Merits and Demerits of Mesh/Fully Mesh Topology

  1. Tree Topology:-In Tree Topology several Star networks connect using Bus topology. Bus cable looks like the main stem of a tree and other star networks as the branches. Each star network also known as a local area network (LAN) in which there central computer or server to which all the workstation nodes directly link. The central computers of the star networks (B1,…., B2 and C1,…, C3)  connect to the main cable called the Bus (A-B).

Merits and Demerits of Tree Topology

  1. Hybrid Topology:- hybrid topology is formed by combining two or more topologies into one large topology. By combining different topologies, hybrid topologies aim to create an effective network. For eg. In the case where one workstation has a Star topology whereas another has a bus topology, connecting the two will result in a Hybrid topology.

Merits and Demerits of Hybrid Topology

In a nutshell Network topologies is important for optimizing performance and making the network simpler for troubleshooting any problem that may come.

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